Toyota New Zealand has re-entered the sports car market, with the launch of the all-new Toyota 86.
The 2.0 litre rear wheel drive coupe will be offered in New Zealand in two factory specifications (86 and GT86), with a Toyota Racing Development (TRD) package available for a limited number of early buyers.
Toyota New Zealand General Manager of Product Planning, Neeraj Lala said, "The 86 is set to revolutionise the sports car market in New Zealand. It's a step away from the current mind-set that a car must have turbo-power, or four wheel drive, or a huge list of electronic controls - not to mention a large price tag - in order to be fun. The 86 was designed to put the driver back in control - it's a responsive, light-weight, rear-wheel drive car that's within reach of ordinary New Zealanders.
"This car wasn't designed by a large committee of executives. It was conceived by a small group of really passionate engineers who wanted to bring the fun back into driving. It's time to get back to basics and experience real driving again."
The 86 is the result of a joint development between Toyota and Subaru, bringing together the best of each company's technical know-how and their mutual passion for sports cars.
The Toyota 86 has an all-new engine which combines the leading edge technologies of Toyota and Subaru.
The 2.0 litre engine is Toyota's first volume-production four-cylinder horizontally opposed engine, helping to give 86 its low centre of gravity.
It has the highest specific power output and the highest operating revs in the Toyota range. 147kW of power is delivered at 7,000rpm and 205Nm of torque at 6,400 to 6,600rpm on 98 Octane fuel, with a maximum engine speed of 7,450rpm. 95 Octane fuel is acceptable for 86.
Toyota chose natural aspiration for 86 to optimise acceleration response, improving the 'connection' between throttle application and power delivery to the rear wheels. The engine gives linear power delivery up to redline speeds, coupled with environmental friendliness.
Fuel economy is impressive for a sports car - 7.8 litres/100km for manual variants - and even better for automatic versions at just 7.1 litres/100km (combined cycle). CO2 emissions are 181 grams/km for the manual and 164 grams/km for the automatic.
It has a 'square' bore and stroke relationship of 86mm by 86mm for a combination of optimum balance, high power and torque, high revs and optimum fuel economy. The compression ratio is 12.5:1 for maximum performance across the revolution range.
Special features include a system to optimise the engine induction sound heard in the cabin, creating a linear intake sound in response to throttle application. The intake system includes a sound creator and a damper, with a thin rubber tube to carry intake pulsations to the cabin. When the intake pulsations reach the sound creator, the damper resonates at certain frequencies to optimise the intake sound heard within the cabin.
Various sound levels are produced, based on the driver's throttle inputs. City driving produces a pleasant, stress-free sound, while wide-open throttle acceleration gives a true sports car sound.
The 86 development team led by chief engineer Tetsuya Tada, overcame traditional corporate guidelines to produce a stirring engine note. Mr Tada said driving a sports car should stimulate all five senses, such as the sight of the design, touch of the steering, the distinct smell of hot brake pads, a taste for sports-car behaviour and the sound of the engine.
"While we aimed to address each of the senses during development, we placed a particular focus on ensuring a pleasing engine note. However, our standard development procedures focus on eliminating sound, not tuning it - and we also face strict worldwide noise regulations. Despite all this, we knew what we needed to do and how to get it done. It took many trial and error sessions, but we were finally able to perfect engine, induction and exhaust sound, including the feature that allows induction sound to be piped directly into the cabin."
DIRECT INJECTION SYSTEM
The 86's engine is the first in the world to combine Subaru's traditional 'boxer' layout and Toyota's unique D-4S (Direct-injection 4 stroke gasoline engine Superior version) dual injection system, for optimum performance and fuel economy.
The Toyota D-4S system combines high pressure direct injection into the combustion chamber and port injection into the intake port. In mixes and matches fuel delivery from the two sets of injectors to provide the ideal fuel/air mixture for all conditions.
The D-4S system boosts performance across the revolution range compared with a port injection engine, boosting power by up to 10kW and torque by up to 20Nm.
The two injection systems have their own fuel supply systems: low pressure for the port injectors and high pressure for the direct injectors. The D-4S system performs both cylinder direct injection and intake port injection, or only cylinder direct injection depending on the engine speed to ensure an even intake air and fuel mixture at all engine speed ranges. This helps to enhance fuel economy, stabilise combustion and power.
This precise injection control also allows for a high compression ratio of 12.5:1 by reducing the chance of pre ignition or detonation. When the engine is cold, the injection system uses both sets of injectors to ensure quick warm up of the catalyst and therefore optimum purification of exhaust emissions.
TRANSMISSION AND DRIVE TRAIN
The Toyota 86 has the choice of two new transmissions: a six speed manual and a six speed automatic.
The six speed manual transmission is all new and designed for crisp movement and a precise, exhilarating shift feel. It has a short throw shift lever and triple-cone synchromesh on the first three gears, for smooth shifting and increased durability.
The automatic transmission provides direct, agile shifting - including direct shift. Advanced transmission electronics provide for manual (M mode) shifting, auto-blipping on down changes and flex lock up to save fuel. The GT86 automatic has the added feature of steering-wheel mounted paddle shifters.
The 86 automatic transmission has Sport and Snow modes, and is water cooled for increased reliability and durability. Its gear ratios were chosen to combine strong acceleration from low speeds with excellent fuel economy when cruising.
Sport mode gives the driver more direct acceleration with faster gear changes. It enables torque converter lock up from lower speeds, for more direct acceleration and shift feeling - it also heightens gear change responsiveness and maximises acceleration in each gear. When combined with D-range, it prioritises vehicle response to driver throttle input. In M range, the automatic transmission provides an even higher level of sporty driving. Snow mode adjusts throttle valve opening to control acceleration characteristics on low grip surfaces.
The 86 grade manual and both GT86 models have a Toyota produced Torsen limited slip differential.
86 Chief Engineer, Tetsuya Tada, fitted the 86 with low friction, low resistance Prius-type 17 inch tyres when tuning to find the maximum potential of the chassis and suspension package. Mr Tada said the tyre on the world's best selling hybrid strikes a great balance between performance, comfort, economy and safety.
"The dynamic potential of the 86 should not rely on high-performance tyres," said Mr Tada. "Ensuring the vehicle handles well on Prius-type tyres means that customers who opt to buy high-performance tyres will be pleasantly surprised at the net performance gain. Having a base chassis and suspension package tuned to be neutral and predictable allows the 86 to readily accommodate a wide variety of tyres."
The tyres fitted to the final production version of the 86 were chosen to match the car's characteristics.
All 86 and GT86 vehicles produced between April and August production are fitted with a full size spare tyre. From September 2012 production, a tyre repair kit is installed to ensure a flat luggage area floor and improve luggage capacity. All special edition TRD vehicles have a tyre repair kit.
The 86 is fitted with the lightest production 16 inch and 17 inch cast aluminium wheels ever produced by Toyota. The 16 x 6.5J wheels on the 86 are the lightest at just 7.21kg and feature a simple 10-spoke design. The high grade GT86 has 17 x 7J wheels with five machine-finished twin spokes, offset by five single dark-accented spokes to provide fine detail.
Two grade-specific brake packages are available. The 86 has 277mm diameter ventilated front discs and 286mm diameter solid rear discs. GT86 has larger 294mm diameter ventilated front discs and 290mm ventilated rear discs. Both have two piston steel callipers at the front and one piston alloy callipers at the back plus a lever-type parking brake.
SUSPENSION AND STEERING
The 86 was designed for high levels of handling, stability and steering response. It was benchmarked against the Porsche Cayman during development with a view to providing quicker lateral-force response and stability, a smaller roll angle and smaller steering angle. Toyota's new sports car has a direct steering feeling on country roads and highways, with sharp steering, low body roll and high levels of grip.
The 86 has MacPherson-strut front suspension with an all-new L-shaped lower arm design and double wishbone rear suspension.
Toyota designed the front suspension for the levels of handling stability owners expect in a 'fun-to-drive' sports car. The design provides a direct handling feel, sharp response and high levels of controllability. It has coil springs, gas-filled dampers and a ball-joint mounted stabiliser bar.
Special attention was paid to optimising the rigidity of the front suspension mounting points and positioning those points to create a lower roll axis. The struts are mounted as low as possible to achieve a low bonnet line for improved aerodynamics and a low centre of gravity. The single L-shaped lower arms have been reverse-positioned (rear to front) compared with the conventional arrangement to allow the engine to be mounted lower and closer to the centre of the vehicle.
The purpose designed double wishbone rear suspension in the 86 provides agile stability and high levels of rear grip. The roll axis has been tuned to compliment the front suspension while providing both the high level of roll rigidity expected and the crisp turn in of a front engine/rear-drive sports car.
The new 86 has the smallest diameter steering wheel in the Toyota range. The three spoke wheel has a 365mm diameter for quick steering inputs. The 86 has electric power assisted rack and pinion steering, with a quick 13.12:1 steering ratio. There are only 2.78 turns lock to lock.
Grip on the steering wheel and thumb stability have been maximised, and verified by test drivers. The steering column has a tilt range of 15mm and a telescopic range of 20mm.
The foundations for Toyota 86's impressive steering and handling are its low centre of gravity (just 460mm above the road), centralised mass/low polar moment on inertia, and the strong yet lightweight body structure which provides a stable platform for the suspension.
The Toyota 86 features an aerodynamic and stylish body design built around a low, highly compact chassis for optimum handling and performance.
86 has a large footprint on the road for its overall dimensions, with a wheelbase on 2,570mm, front track of 1,520mm and rear track of 1,540mm.
At 4,240mm in length the standard 86 is shorter than a Corolla hatch (4,245mm). It also has a shorter wheelbase than the Corolla (2,600mm). The 86's roof height is just 1,285mm - a full 225mm lower than the Yaris hatch. At 1,775mm wide, the 86 has a squat, sporting stance.
Designers took advantage of the low centre of gravity afforded by the boxer engine and front-engine/rear-wheel drive layout to create the low, compact design, with the flat, low bonnet signalling the presence of a boxer engine.
The bonnet has sharp, geometric surface styling above the headlamps and sweeping upward lines on either side that flow into the wheel arch profiles. The large, low-set grille provides generous cooling to the front radiator and front brake callipers with a shape that provides a cue to Toyota's design identity. The front grille also has distinctive T-mesh in place of conventional grille mesh.
Other design details point specifically to Toyota's legendary 2000GT sports car, including the distinctive side window shape and flared wheel arches.
The rear wheel arches and trapezoid shaped rear fascia give the 86 a wide, sporty stance at the rear. Dual circular exhaust tips with a large, 110mm outer diameter provide an additionally dynamic appearance.
The 86 comes with halogen headlights as standard, while the high grade GT86 has High Intensity Discharge (HID) headlights and LED (light emitting diode) daytime running lights (DRLs). The GT86 also has headlight cleaners and fog lights in the lower section of the front bumper. The 86 has DRLs fitted in the same position as the fog lights on GT86.
Rear combination lamps for both grades have 12 element LED tail and stop lights and bulb type rear indicator lights. Two reversing lights and a fog light are integrated in the rear bumper, and there is an LED high mount stop light on the package tray. LED lights provide high visibility, a cutting edge appearance and use less power than traditional bulbs. The sides of the rear lamps also have aero stabilising fins, which contribute to overall aerodynamic performance.
Toyota 86 is available in seven exterior colours: Pegasus White, Tornado Grey, Lightning Red, Midnight Black, Molten Silver, Galaxy Blue and Burnt Orange.
Toyota's attention to detail with the new 86 sports car includes measures to protect against stone chips during rallying and sports-car activities. A special anti-chip paint coating has been applied to the areas most at risk - the front edge of the bonnet and roof, and the two windscreen pillars. Other areas have benefited from a chip-resistant coating, while anti-chip tape has been applied to the rear area of the door partition.
Other measures to protect the car include the use of rust resistant steel in the under floor area, anti rust wax and an aluminium cover under the engine. Similarly, contact guards at the rear prevent damage to the exhaust pipes.
Body rigidity has been optimised while meeting strict weight targets through extensive use of high tensile and ultra high tensile strength steel, and optimal use of strengthening brackets and gussets. Reinforcements have been added to key points where load is transmitted from the suspension to the body, including the front side members and rear floor members.
A unique T-mesh pattern has been created for the 86 and is used in several places around the car as a subtle link to Toyota's heritage. It is used in the front grille, door switch bases, front seats, instrument panel, sun visors, meters, and the triangular rear centre fog light.
The 86's logo incorporates a piston design, hinting at the car's front boxer engine, rear wheel drive powertrain layout. It also represents the vehicle's tyres sliding in a four wheel drift, highlighting the impressive balance of the 86. This unique logo features on the front fenders of all models.
The aerodynamic design of the Toyota 86 promotes agile handling at low to mid range speeds and superior straight line stability at high speeds. The design promotes stability by enveloping the car with air - above, below and along the sides. This principle prevents unnecessary down force which can affect fuel economy.
The 86 has a drag coefficient of 0.27.
The profile from the bottom edge of the low-set front bumper to the bottom edge of the side rocker enhances stability, while the bonnet surface is gently curved, reducing drag and lift. A 'pagoda' roof design widens towards the rear of the car, contributing to a lower roof and in turn provides handling stability. The boot angle maximises airflow efficiency over the rear of the vehicles. The upturned rear diffuser provides additional and effective down-force for enhanced handling.
A bold "Aero Package" is available as an option for the GT86 grade. It includes a front under spoiler with vertical fins to manage airflow, side skirts, a rear under spoiler and a large wing type rear boot spoiler.
The Toyota 86 has a dynamic, high quality interior with features to maximise driver engagement.
Unnecessary space has been trimmed to create a snug, cockpit style cabin environment, while meeting the demands of a compact 2+2 sports car. The front seats are low, with a hip point of just 400mm.
The predominantly black interior has contrasting colours and materials to provide a sense of sportiness and high quality craftsmanship.
Switch panels on the door trims are angled towards occupants and easy to use door grips enhance operability. The door handles were also specially positioned to enable the fitment of a roll cage for track use.
The GT86 has a knee pad for additional support and maintained driver pedal control under high lateral loads.
The centre console height was designed to prevent interference with the driver's arm when shifting gears, while the removable cup holder can be set in a rear position to prevent drinks from obstructing the driver's arm movement.
GT86 comes standard with an engine stop/start button and dual zone climate controlled air conditioning, while the 86 grade has manual air conditioning. 12V/120W accessory sockets are located in the centre console and glove box on both grades.
Seat materials were chosen for their light weight, strength, durability, breathability and non-slip properties, to enhance sporty driving. The main seat and sides of the 86 grade are trimmed in soft fabric, while the high grade GT86 has leather accented front seats with Alcantara fabric inserts.
The GT86 seats are embossed with a signature T-mesh pattern, which also appears on the instrumentation, climate control panel and door switch base. T-mesh evokes Toyota's rich sports car history while providing a dynamic, high tech appearance.
Special attention was paid to minimising seat weight and seat-back thickness, while optimising comfort and whiplash injury protection. The seat cushion and side bolsters were designed to support the driver and front passenger against longitudinal and lateral G-forces allowing them to feel the vehicle's behaviour through their lower torso. The driver's seat cushion provides ample thigh support, while the front end of the seat is rounded to enhance pedal operability.
The 86's sports seats were designed for optimum safety in the event of a rear-end collision. The seat frame suppresses rearward pressure from the occupant's body, simultaneously restraining the head and chest to help lessen whiplash injuries.
The front passenger's seat has a walk-in mechanism for access to the rear seat. It can be activated using the seat recline lever, or a strap on the rear of the seat.
The Toyota 86 has a versatile single piece folding back seat, with space for two occupants up to 170cm tall or leisure equipment. Alternatively, it can be folded flat - creating space to carry four standard wheels for a track day, or two golf bags. 86's luggage area has a height of 391mm.
The 86 is fitted with two ISO-Fix child seat mounting points and two child-restraint anchorages.
The instruments in Toyota's new 86 were designed with the tachometer in the centre, for sports oriented driving.
Both grades have a three ring design, with a central tachometer, analogue speedometer and multi-information display. The multi-information display includes odometer, twin trip meters, outside temperature, instantaneous fuel consumption and average fuel consumption. A manual gear shift indicator has been included for manual transmission vehicles to aid environmentally friendly driving; it flashes three times at the optimum up-shift point to help save fuel. This shift indicator also helps the driver to use the full rev range of the engine without constantly checking the tachometer.
The GT86 instruments include a digital speedometer in the tachometer dial and rev indicator light. The rev indicator helps the driver to use the full rev range of the engine without constantly checking the tachometer, and can be set to illuminate at any engine speed between 2,000 and 7,400rpm, as set by the driver. There is also a red zone indicator which flashes when the engine speed exceeds 7,400rpm.
Both grades have a single disc CD player and six speakers for premium sound output. The speaker layout includes two 25mm tweeters on the instrument panel, a 160mm speaker in each of the front doors and two 65mm rear quarter speakers.
USB and 3.5mm auxiliary input jacks allow for easy connection of portable music players, with iPod control available when using the USB jack. The Bluetooth system allows for audio streaming, hands-free phone calls, and access to phone book contacts. The system also has voice recognition for audio and phone functions, plus FM radio text display.
Toyota has developed a world-first frameless rear view mirror to overcome the sports car challenge of having a small mirror to ensure maximum visibility through the windscreen, without compromising rear vision. The 86's chief engineer reviewed many mirrors before deciding to develop this chic and stylish solution for the GT86 grade.
The new Toyota 86 has a comprehensive active and passive safety package as standard equipment. The 86 was designed to achieve a five star ANCAP safety rating and has a pedestrian-friendly front structure.
Both models have seven SRS airbags, including a driver's knee airbag and Toyota's latest generation whiplash injury lessening front seats.
Active safety features include ABS with electronic brake-force distribution (EBD) and brake assist (BA), traction control (TRC) and five mode vehicle stability control (VSC). The five VSC modes are controlled by the 'VSC OFF' and 'VSC SPORT' switches and are designed to satisfy each of the following driving modes: normal driving, starting off on loose or muddy surfaces, sports driving (with VSC support), sports driving (with TRC off), sports driving (with VSC and TRC off). In all scenarios, the limited slip differential function of the VSC continues to operate.
The 86's active safety credentials are further enhanced by its high grip and quick steering, powerful brakes and well modulated brake feel. Headlights and daytime running lights (DRLs) further improve safety performance.
Passive safety begins with the 86's impact absorbing body, which was designed to channel frontal crash energy from the side members to the rockers, and floor and transmission tunnel reinforcement. Body strength and crashworthiness have been further enhanced by using five grades of high-tensile strength steel sheet and a series of reinforcing brackets and gussets.